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306 views • July 6, 2021

The Wonder of Deep Sea Echinoderms

Natural World Facts
Echinoderms come in countless shapes and sizes, but there are a few unique features that unite the 6,500 living species. Many adults of this phylum have 5-way radial symmetry; a pattern most prominent in the shape of the starfish. In addition, they have skeletons made up of interlocking calcium carbonate plates and spines called ossicles. This provides rigidity for their complex structures, making up the protective shell of urchins, or the column-like spine of crinoids. These skeletons are also the reason why fossils for echinoderms are so widespread and well-preserved, with some crinoid fossils being as old as 500 million years. Perhaps the most peculiar creatures of this phylum are the holothurians. Sea cucumbers, with their retractable feeding tentacles and tube feet around the mouth which they use to forage in the sea floor mud. 00:00 - An Introduction to Echinoderms 01:27 - The Structure of Echinoderms 02:01 - Ossicles Explained 02:35 - Holothurians Explained (Sea Cucumbers) 02:53 - The Swimming Sea Cucumber 04:21 - The Sea Pig of the Abyss 05:11 - The Role of Holothurians - Filter Feeding 05:28 - The Role of Holothurians - Bioturbation 05:49 - The Role of Holothurians - Symbiosis 05:55 - Symbiosis: Emperor Shrimps & Sea Cucumbers 06:10 - Symbiosis: Pearlfish & Sea Cucumbers 06:29 - Defensive Adaptations of Holothurians 07:10 - Starfish Explained 07:37 - The Crown-of-thorns Starfish 08:13 - The Consequences of Ecosystem Instability 08:24 - The Role of Sea Urchins - Maintaining Balance 08:59 - Brittle Stars Explained 09:30 - Basket Stars Explained 10:14 - Conclusion: The Importance of Echinoderms DEEP SEA HUB: https://naturalworldfacts.com/deep-sea-hub/ Footage used is from various YouTube sources, the BBC, Jonathan Bird's Blue World, MBARI, OceanX, NatGeo, the Ocean Exploration Institute and the Schmidt Ocean Institute, as well as other sources. Music Used: Relics by Ben Prunty (from the game Subnautica Below Zero) Seductress by Francis Preve Dark Walk by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Source: http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-free/index.html?isrc=USUAN1100468 Artist: http://incompetech.com/ Lone Harvest by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Source: http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-free/index.html?isrc=USUAN1100409 Artist: http://incompetech.com/ Crystal Caves by Ben Prunty #deepsea #wildlife #nature #documentary #ocean #marinebiology #science #biology Resources: https://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/okeanos/explorations/ex1811/logs/nov7/welcome.html https://oceanconservancy.org/blog/2019/07/03/everything-need-know-sea-pigs/
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